I woke up at 7, got dressed, and went to breakfast to eat fruit and eggs. I left today for class at 8:40 and got there at 8:50. Today's lecture freshened my mind of all the science I've learned in the past two years of high school. Dr. Fineschi talked about how bacteria becomes resistant and the super bug. I learned that there are four reasons that bacteria becomes resistant. The first is that bacteria fights back and produces enzyme that break down antibiotics making it ineffective. The second is that bacteria pumps in the body and out as it enters your body. The third is that there is no entry and lastly bacteria modifies their metabolic pathways targeted by antibiotics. The super bug is a pathogen resistant to more than one antibiotic simultaneously. Super bugs come from overuse of antibiotics and overuse of antibiotics allows evolution of resistant strains. For example, penicillin, methicillin, and tetracyline and vancomycin still works. Misused antibiotics leads to viral infections and antibiotics that are overused are used for prevention. Antibiotics promotes growth of antibiotic resistance. It also affects our gut microbiota and promotes growth of pathogenic bacteria.
The Tobacco Plant Cytoplasm
After the lecture we went to the lab and we got to calculate the original bacterial concentration of E.coli and since our second plates haven't mutated yet, we have to wait until tomorrow so we can count how many colonies they have. But so far the ones that did finish had 168 colonies, 20 colonies, and 4 colonies. I liked learning how to find the original bacterial concentration using the equation # of colonies divided by volume plated x plated dilution. After we finished we got to leave early if we wanted to for lunch. For lunch I walked back to where the dining hall is and bought some subway. Then I walked back to my class with Lila and Camile, another one of my classmates, and we ate our subway sandwiches there. Then we went back to the classroom after we finished eating. For the next part of class we had another hour lecture about DNA replication, primase and primers, and why bacteria is immortal. The first couple of slides talked about DNA being replicated right before cell division and how DNA replication is semi-conservative. I also learned that a replication complex include a number of enzymes. DNA polymerase can't function without a primer. A primer is required to start the DNA replication. Close to the end we talked eukaryotic cells and how they have special sequences called telomeres. Telemeres don't contain genes. The telemerase enzyme is composed of and RNA subunit and a proteic subunit. The code for proteic subunits is Tep 1 and is active in every cell in early embryo.
The Mitochondria Cell
For the last 40 minutes of the class we just sat in the lab and looked at more bacteria and plant cells under the microscope. If we were done with everything we had a choice to leave or stay and look at the cells. I left after looking at a couple of them. When I got back to the dorms I started to finish one of the reports we were assigned to do and then later on at 5:30 I went to dinner and ate some salad, fruit, and mashed potatoes. It was delicious. After dinner I hung out in the fifth floor lounge with my classmates Jeng, Lila, and Maddie that were up there playing slap jack. Later on I went to Dani's room to work on some research for my project we're doing in my class and ended the night after I was finished.